Tourette’s syndrome

A developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by multiple motor & one or more vocal tics, present for at least a year, causing distress & impaired functions.

⭐Characteristics:

✦Motor tics usually begin between 3-8yrs of age.
✦Vocal tics usually appear few years after onset of motor tics.
✦Tics become more complex after some years.
✦Their exacerbations often related to “Stress” & “Excitement”.
✦Peak is usually seen in early adolescence & most reduce in severity by the end of adolescence.

⭐Epidemiology:

⍟ 3 times more common in males.

⭐Comorbidity:

⍟OCD & ADHD are common.
⍟Depression
⍟Anxiety
⍟Learning Difficulties.
⍟Migraine

⭐Treatment:

1. Psychoeducation:

✦Lifestyle adjustment
✦Realistic expectations
✦Stress reduction
✦Caffeine reduction

2. Behavioral Interventions:

Habit-Reversal Training

⍟Awareness
⍟Self monitoring of tics
⍟Relexation

3. Treat comorbidity

4. Pharmacotherapy:

✦alpha-adrenergics.
✦If tics are severe & impairing, consider antipsychotics.

Reference:

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