Schizophrenia: Brief History

❶. 1860: “Morel” used the term ‘demence precoce’ for a disorder of ‘deteriorating adolescent psychosis.

❷. 1863: “Kahlbaum” described ‘Katotonie’.

❸. 1871: “Hecker” described ‘hebephrenie’.

❹. 1896: “Emil Kraepelin” grouped together Catatonia, hebephrenia and the deteriorating paranoid psychoses under the name “dementia praecox”.

He also differentiated it from “manic-depressive psychoses” which has relatively better prognosis.

❺. 1911: “Bleuler” introduced the term “Schizophrenia”.

He considered symptoms of
1. Ambivalence
2. Autism
3. Affective incongruity &
4. Disturbance of association of thoughts

to be fundamental (4 A’s) with delusions & hallucinations assuming secondary status.

❻. 1959: ‘Kurt Schneider’ emphasized the importance of delusions & hallucinations in defining the first-rank symptoms’.

❼. 1973: WHO conduct international pilot study of schizophrenia & found that psychiatrists in ‘United States’ diagnosed schizophrenia twice as often as those in other countries.
This led to realization that psychiatric diagnoses had to be defined operationally.

❽. 1980: “Crow” proposed that Schizophrenia could be divided into two different syndromes:

👉Type I: Characterized by prominent positive symptoms, an acute onset, good premorbid adjustment, a good response to treatment, intact cognition, intact brain structure & an underlying mechanism that was neuro chemical (dopaminergic) & therefore reversible.

👉Type II: Characterized by prominent negative symptoms, an insidious onset, poor premorbid adjustment, a poor response to treatment, impaired cognition, structural brain abnormalities (Ventricular enlargement) & an underlying mechanism that was characterized by neuronal loss & therefore irreversible

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: