Personality Disorders

Personality :

Personality is the quality that makes each one of us both different from others & consistently recognizable throughout our lives.

Personality Disorders :

• Personality Disorders tend to appear in late childhood or adolescence & continue to manifest in adulthood.
• Diagnosis of P.D. should not be made before the age of 16-17 yrs.

ICD-10 Diagnostic Guidelines :- F60

At least 3 or more of the following are required to make a diagnosis of Personality Disorder :-

1. Markedly disharmonious attitudes & behaviour involving several areas of functioning. e.g. affectivity, arousal, impulse control, ways of perceiving and thinking & style of relating to others.

2. The abnormal behaviour pattern is enduring, long standing & not limited to episodes of mental illness.

3. The abnormal behaviour pattern is pervasive & clearly maladaptive to a broad range of personal & social situations.

4. Always appear during childhood or adolescence & continue into adulthood.

5. Lead to considerable distress.

6. Usually associated with significant problems in occupational & social performance.

Classifications:-

  1. Paranoid P.D.


2. Schizoid P.D.


3. Dissocial P.D. (ICD-10)/Antisocial P.D. (DSM-IV)


4. Emotionally Unstable P.D. (ICD-10)/Borderline P.D.


5. Histrionic P.D.


6. Anankastic(ICD-10) P.D./obsessive-compulsive P.D.
(DSM-IV)


7. Anxious(Avoidant) P.D. (ICD-10)/Avoidant P.D. (DSM-IV)


8. Dependent P.D.


9. Other specific P.D.(ICD-10)/ Schizotypal P.D., Narcissistic, P.D. not otherwise specified(DSM-IV)

In DSM-III,11 P.D. are divided into 3 clusters:

1.Cluster A (the odd or eccentric)

• Paranoid
• Schizoid
• Schizotypal

2. Cluster B (the dramatic or erratic)

• Borderline
• Histrionic
• Narcissistic
• Antisocial

3. Cluster C ( the anxious cluster)

• Avoidant
• Dependent
• Obsessive – compulsive
• Passive – aggressive

Reference:

  • New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry(2nd edition).
  • ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders.
  • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-3
  • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-4

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