The cardinal feature of this personality disorder is an exaggerated & pervasive attempt to:
(a) Control their closed ones.
(b) Control their own thoughts & emotions.
•They lack internal sense of security.
•They are inflexible & Stubborn.
👉1% in general population.
👉10% in psychiatric patients.
⭐⭐Some obsessive compulsive traits are sanctioned in some cultures, So a personality disorder should not be diagnosed unless the traits are markedly beyond the average for the culture.
1. Biological factors & learning seem to be involved in the aetiology of obsessive compulsive personality disorder
2. Personality may be partly inherited.
3. Theories for the development of obsessive compulsive personality disorder:
🅰️ Early Psychodynamic Theories: linked obsessive compulsive personality disorder to anal phase of psychosexual development (2-4yrs of age), when libidinal drives come into conflicts with parental attempts to socialize the child, especially in sphincter control & toilet training.
🅱️ Later Psychoanalytic Theories: emphasized earlier manifestations of child’s autonomy versus parental wishes.
The expression of drives & emotions including anger is shaped by parental response and may evoke shame & criticism.
4. Developmental Factors:
Obsessive compulsive personality disorder is seen more commonly in societies in which:
(a) Open expression of emotions is discouraged
(b) Individual emotions are subordinated to the group .
ICD-10 Criteria: Anankastic personality disorder(F60.5)
1. Feelings of excessive doubt & caution.
2. Preoccupation with details, rules, lists order, organization or schedule.
3. Perfectionism that interferes with task completion.
4. Excessive conscientiousness (wish to do one’s job well & thoroughly), scrupulousness (strict attention to minute details) & undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure & interpersonal relationships.
5. Excessive pedantry (excessive concern with minor details) & adherence to social conversations (traditional way of doing things.)
6. Rigidity & stubbornness.
7. Unreasonable insistence that others submit to exactly his or her way of doing things, or unreasonable reluctance to allow others to do things.
8. Intrusion of insistent & unwelcome thoughts or impulses.
In past it was thought that most obsessive compulsive personality disorders evolve to full obsessive compulsive disorder. But recent researches indicate that most obsessive compulsive disorder patients do not have a comorbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder.
👉Depression (Late onset depression is a common occurence.)
👉Obsessive compulsive disorder
⭐⭐They do well in jobs that demand working with details, order & structured procedures.
Diagnosis of OCD is made when occupational & personal functioning is severely impaired.
•In many cases of obsessive compulsive personality disorder, the behaviours are ego syntonic.
⭐⭐⭐Not all individuals with obsessive traits have obsessive compulsive personality disorder. Obsessive traits can be adaptive in some situations, it is only when they are maladaptive, inflexible & persistently cause functional impairment that a obsessive compulsive personality disorder is diagnosed.
👉For anxiety & distress due to doubts & scruples:
👉Psychological cognitive treatment.
- New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry(2nd edition).
- ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders.