Forgetfullness means apparent loss of information already encoded & stored in long term memory. Most of what we think we have forgotten does not really qualify as forgotten because it was never encoded & stored in 1st place.

Some Important Terms to understand Forgetfulness:

Constructive Process:

During encoding, the ‘to be remembered’ information, especially if it is a complex life event, is modified. Certain details are accentuated, the material may be simplified or it may be changed in many other ways so that what is encoded and stored is far from a literal copy of input. These modifications are called Constructive Processes.

Reconstructive Processes in Retrieval:

Reconstructive process are modifications of already stored input. These are often seen in the answers to leading questions that bias the retrieval of what was stored.

Retrieval Cues:

Finding information in the organised long term memory store is aided by retrieval cues or reminders which direct the memory search to the appropriate part or long term memory library. This is one of the tricks in having a good memory.

State-Dependent Memory:

If people encode & store information when they are in a particular emotional or drugged state, they may not be able to retrieve the information when they are in another emotional state or no longer under the influence of the drug. But when put back into original emotional or drugged state, the memory can be retrieved.

Types of interference in memory:

(A) Retroactive interference:

In this, learning new things interferes with our memory of what we learned earlier.

(B). Proactive Interference:

In this, prior learning interferes with memory learned later.

Causes of forget fullness:

1. Without appropriate retrieval cues, there is possibility that items stored in long term memory might not found.

⭐ when we think we have forgotten something it is often a good idea to give up & do something else in order to generate retrieval cues.

2. Reconstructive processes can also distort our recall.

3. Emotional factors can also play a role in retrieval failure. For example: State Dependent Memory.

4. Motivated forgetting (katathymic Amnesia):

This refers to tendency of people to have difficulty in retrieving anxiety provoking or threating information. It is believed to be due to defence mechanism of repression.

Tips to improve your memory will be discussed in the upcoming article.

For any suggestions & queries, please write in the comment box…

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