Anxiety Disorders are most common class of Psychiatric Disorders. Amongst anxiety disorders most common types are:
- Lifetime Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders = 30%
- 12 month Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders = 14%
12 month Prevalence of different types of Anxiety Disorders:
|Type of Anxiety Disorders||12 month Prevalence|
|1. Specific Phobia||1.9% to 8.7%|
|2. Social Anxiety Disorder||0.2% to 6.8%|
|3. Generalised Anxiety Disorder||2.1% to 3.1%|
|4. Panic Disorder||0.2% to 1.1%|
|Separation Anxiety Disorders & Specific Phobias||50% have onset prior to the age of 8 years & almost all have onset by the age of 12 years.|
|Social Anxiety Disorders||Begins to develop later in childhood showing steep increase in incidence in early adolescence.|
|Agoraphobia, Panic Disorder|
& Generalised Anxiety Disorder
|Most cases have onset in later adolescence & early adulthood.|
Onset is slightly earlier in males for specific phobias.
Onset is slightly earlier in females for Generalised Anxiety Disorder.
Natural course of Anxiety Disorders is not typically chronic. Instead, symptoms typically wax & wane over time, with spontaneous complete remission being the rare expectation.
- Women have higher rates of almost all Anxiety Disorders.
- Gender differences are usually small in childhood (2:1) & grows with age (3:1 in late adolescence).
- More common in Divorced/ separated.
- Higher in people with lower education qualification.
- Low household income/ parental unemployment may also lead to higher rates of Anxiety Disorders.
- Anxiety Disorders run in families.
- There is a strong risk for offspring with two affected parents & severely affected parents.
- Parental Depression is also associated with Anxiety Disorders in offspring.
Behavioural Inhibition, Anxiety Sensitivity & Neuroticism are viewed as precursor conditions for Anxiety Disorders.
- Adverse Life events in Childhood/ Adolescence: Loss of a Parent or Physical/ Sexual abuse.
- Unfavourable Parental Rearing Styles: Overprotection/ Parental rejection.
In Particular, threat events tend to precede Anxiety Disorders; whereas loss events tend to precede Depression.
- Female gender is the only demographic variable associated with higher Persistence of most Anxiety Disorders.
- Best Prognostic Indicators: Severity of symptoms & Duration of illness.